Any changes on the skin of a person indicate internal problems in the body. Dermatologists by the appearance of the epidermis often make a preliminary diagnosis and send the patient to a specific specialist.
Diabetes mellitus also has a kind of external manifestations, which should be a signal to go to a therapist or skin doctor. What rash in diabetes mellitus appears on the human body long before the diagnosis of the disease or may be a concomitant factor of this disease every educated person should know.
Classification of skin problems indicating diabetes
Based on the fact that excess sugar is deposited in the blood vessels, veins and capillaries are subject to change in the first place. The process of carbohydrate metabolism is disturbed, which leads to failures in the supply of food to the cells of the epidermis. The skin loses its elasticity, it becomes dry, flaky.
Such changes may not occur in different periods of diabetes, because there is no single form of this disease. Sometimes a person does not even know about the problem with glucose uptake, and the skin rash gives a signal.
All pathologies with skin that indicate diabetes can be divided into several groups:
- The precursors of the disease are itching of the skin on different parts of the body, thickening of the epidermis on the foot, cracking, yellowing, and changes in the nail plate on the fingers. Many people blame these problems for the manifestation of the fungus and are not in a hurry to start treatment or self-medicate. A dermatologist may suspect type 2 diabetes, especially if the patient has obesity rates. Fungal disease is usually a secondary symptom of diabetes, developing due to poor regeneration of the skin layer.
- Complications caused by severe diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2, when the therapy is not performed properly. They are called primary because they arose due to diabetic changes in the blood vessels and metabolic disorders in the body.
- Allergic rashes - a rash or redness is a reaction to therapy. Many glucose-lowering drugs have this side effect. Improperly selected insulin dosage can also cause allergies.
Characteristics of the main types of skin lesions in diabetes
Skin problems in diabetes are found in most patients and manifest in various forms. Some cases are considered rare, but there are problems that are typical for type 1 diabetes and type 2.
First of all, an excess of sugar in the circulatory system strikes the kidneys and water balance. Diabetics have frequent urination, the body tries to remove excess glucose if it has not been absorbed by the cells.
Abundant urine flow reduces water levels. Dehydration provokes dry skin, the sebaceous and sweat glands are disrupted. Dryness causes itching, which can cause injury to the epidermis. Dirt from the surface of the skin easily gets inside, where microbes begin the process of their vital functions.
Special attention should be paid to the hygiene of the upper and lower extremities in order to prevent the possibility of infection to penetrate the skin.
Reduce dry skin in diabetes can be due to an increase in the amount of moisture. You need to constantly drink clean water and monitor glucose levels with diet or drugs.
Dermatologists call this problem "hyperkeratosis". A large number of corns appear on the foot, which over time can turn into open ulcers and also contribute to the infection of the extremities.
The development of corns contributes to the wearing of uncomfortable, cramped shoes. Corn presses against the epidermis and causes hemorrhage. In the future, ulcers develop, the skin begins to get wet or there is a strong seal.
Cracks form on heels that are difficult to heal. And any crack is a place for the development of bacteria, inflammation, and suppuration.
The problem of corns is an inconvenience in movement, because stepping on the foot is painful, even in soft socks.
Diabetic leg ulcers are the result of improper foot care. For diabetics, it can threaten the development of sepsis, gangrene and amputation of limbs.
Refers to the primary skin manifestations of diabetes. Symmetric reddish-brown papules appear in the front surface of the patient's lower legs, reaching a volume of 5 to 12 millimeters.
May move to the stage of pigmented atrophic spots. Mainly observed in men with experience of diabetics. The appearance of stains caused by damage to the blood vessels of the diabetic type.
Itching may occur unexpectedly and lead to the formation of redness. Severe irritation occurs in the groin area, in the folds of the abdomen, between the buttocks, in the area of the elbow bend, and in women in the folds under the breast.
It may be the first sign of the onset of diabetes mellitus, which a person does not even suspect. The severity of the disease does not affect the intensity of the itch.
It is noted that a strong desire to scratch these places occurs with mild or hidden form of diabetes. When diagnosing an ailment and starting treatment, itching and redness on the skin can disappear spontaneously.
Fungal and infectious lesions
Primary skin problems in diabetics entail the appearance of secondary lesions. They arise because of the patient’s careless attitude towards himself. Non-compliance with hygiene in case of itching of the skin or the formation of seals, cracks, dryness provokes the reproduction of fungi or the penetration of viruses into the affected areas.
People with obesity often develop candidiasis - a fungal infection of the epidermis in the folds of the body. First, a person begins to itch. A bacterium settles on the damaged surface, surface cracks and erosion are formed. Lesions have increased moisture, bluish-red color and white bezel.
Gradually, screenings appear in the form of bubbles and pustules from the main focus. The process can be endless, because the bubbles at the opening form a new erosion. The disease requires immediate diagnosis and therapy.
In the insulin-dependent group of people, the body's need for an injection of the hormone increases.
People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes have to take special medications throughout their lives to compensate for sugar. But each organism reacts to insulin or other medicines ambiguously. An allergic rash may appear on different areas of the skin.
This problem is solved easier than previous ones. It is enough to adjust the dosage or pick up another medicine to eliminate skin rashes in diabetes.
Prevention of epidermis lesions in diabetes
Skin changes in diabetes mellitus is a natural reaction of the body to unstable metabolic processes. Rashes can be both in children and adults.
Any blemishes or reddening should be examined by a dermatologist in order for the therapy to be effective.
- Diabetics need to carefully monitor the hygiene of the skin, especially the upper, lower extremities and places of formation of folds. There are special skin care products that have a neutral pH.
- In the pharmacy chain, you can buy special lotions, creams, cosmetic milk to care for dry skin of the face, hands and feet. Give a good effect cream based on urea. Hygiene and hydration procedures should be daily.
- The feet of diabetics are a special area of increased attention. Be sure to visit the orthopedist to identify the initial stage of deformity of the lower extremities and the selection of the correct orthopedic shoes or insoles. The defeat of the vessels and veins greatly affects the supply of power to the legs. With age, problems in the blood supply to the legs occur even in healthy people. Diabetics are more prone to such problems. Doctors always warn patients about the development of diabetic foot syndrome.
- Infectious and fungal skin lesions require observation by a dermatologist. After a clinical and visual examination, the doctor will prescribe an ointment and pills, an adjustment of insulin doses will be required. Antibiotics may be prescribed.
- Increased sweating and impaired thermoregulation are often common to people with diabetes. In the folds of the skin may appear diaper rash and bacteria. Talc or a special cream containing zinc oxide helps to ease the situation.
More recommendations for the prevention of rashes and other skin damage in diabetes can be given by an endocrinologist or a dermatologist.
A prerequisite for the prevention of any complications against the background of excessive glucose in the blood is to work to reduce this indicator with the help of diet, drug therapy and careful attention to yourself.
The appearance of dryness, rashes, and other changes on the skin with diabetes mellitus is normal and can cause a person more problems. You should not treat redness or itching as a temporary phenomenon that will pass by itself.
Even a healthy person should listen to body signals that may hint at serious internal changes, for example, the initial stage of grade 2 diabetes.