Today, diabetes is becoming an increasingly common disease in Russia. And if earlier they were usually ill with mature and elderly people, today, it often affects young men and women who have not even reached 30 years of age.
This is largely due to the unhealthy lifestyle that many Russians have, namely the use of large quantities of fast food, convenience foods and other non-natural products, sedentary work, rare exercise and frequent use of alcoholic beverages.
It is important to note that diabetes mellitus often develops without symptoms, which makes it difficult to diagnose it in a timely manner. For this reason, you should know what the rate of sugar in the blood during the day in a healthy person, which will allow time to notice the onset of the disease.
The rate of sugar for a healthy person during the day
There are two ways for glucose to enter human blood - from the intestines when digesting food and from liver cells in the form of glycogen. When this occurs, the level of sugar in the blood rises, which in a healthy person fluctuates in a rather small range.
If a person does not suffer from diabetes, he produces a sufficient amount of insulin, and the internal tissues have not lost sensitivity to it, then the concentration of glucose in the blood increases for a while. Insulin helps cells absorb glucose and convert it into the energy needed by all tissues of the body, especially the nervous system.
A rise in blood sugar levels above the norm does not always indicate the development of diabetes. This can sometimes be the result of stress, heavy physical exertion or the consumption of high-carb foods. But if the glucose concentration in the body is kept at a high level for several days in a row, then the person should be tested for diabetes.
The rate of blood sugar during the day:
- In the morning after sleep, on an empty stomach - 3.5-5.5 millimoles per liter;
- In the afternoon and evening before meals - 3.8-6.1 millimoles per liter;
- After 1 hour after a meal - no more than 8.9 millimoles per liter;
- 2 hours after a meal - no more than 6.7 millimoles per liter;
- At night during sleep - a maximum of 3.9 millimoles per liter.
Blood Sugar Rate for Diabetics:
- In the morning on an empty stomach - 5-7,2 millimoles per liter;
- Two hours after a meal - no more than 10 millimoles per liter.
As can be seen, the blood sugar levels of a healthy and sick person fluctuate seriously during the day. When a person is hungry, the glucose concentration drops to the minimum mark, and 2 hours after eating, it reaches its maximum level.
If a person has no disorders in carbohydrate metabolism, then such fluctuations are not dangerous for him. The normal functioning of the pancreas provides rapid absorption of glucose, in which it does not have time to cause any harm to the body.
The situation is quite different in people with diabetes. With this disease in the human body there is an acute shortage of insulin or the cells lose sensitivity to this hormone. For this reason, diabetic blood sugar levels can reach critical marks and stay at this point for a long time.
This often leads to severe lesions of the cardiovascular and nervous systems, which in turn causes the development of heart disease, deterioration of visual acuity, the appearance of trophic leg ulcers and other dangerous complications.
How to control blood sugar
To control blood sugar during the day, you must purchase a device specially designed for this purpose - a blood glucose meter. It is extremely easy to use the meter, for this you need to pierce your finger with the thinnest needle, squeeze out a small drop of blood and dip a test strip in it into the meter.
Regular measurements of glucose levels during the day will allow time to notice the excess of blood sugar and to identify diabetes at the earliest stage. It is important to remember that the effectiveness of diabetes treatment depends largely on the timely diagnosis.
This is especially true for people at risk of developing diabetes. Day of their vital to control sugar during the day, not forgetting to measure the level of glucose after a meal. If this indicator exceeds the mark of 7 mmol / l for several days in a row, then this is probably the first symptom of type 2 diabetes.
Who can get diabetes?
- People who are overweight, especially those with a high degree of obesity;
- Patients suffering from hypertension (high blood pressure);
- Women who have given birth to a child weighing 4 kg or more;
- Women who had gestational diabetes while carrying a child;
- People with a genetic predisposition to diabetes;
- Patients who have suffered a stroke or heart attack;
- All people aged 40 and over.
Compliance with at least one of these points means that a person should pay more attention to his health and more often visit an endocrinologist who will help determine abnormalities in the pancreas.
It is also necessary to remember which factors have the greatest effect on sugar levels during the day. These include frequent use of alcoholic beverages, smoking cigarettes, constant stress, taking certain medications, especially hormones.
Often, to significantly reduce the risk of getting diabetes, all you have to do is change your lifestyle, namely, eliminate all fatty, sweet, spicy, spicy foods from your daily diet and eat a low-carb diet, exercise regularly and get rid of bad habits.
How to measure blood sugar
The blood glucose meter was specifically designed to help people suffering from diabetes or simply caring for their health to measure their blood sugar levels without leaving their homes. The cost of the meter depends on the quality of the device and the manufacturer. On average, the price of this device in Russian cities varies from 1,000 to 5,000 rubles.
The kit for self-measurement of glucose in addition to the apparatus itself, also includes a set of test strips and a lancet. The lancet is a special device for piercing the skin on the finger. It is equipped with a very thin needle, thanks to which this procedure is performed almost painlessly and leaves no serious injuries on the finger.
As noted above, using a glucometer is not difficult. Before the procedure it is very important to wash your hands thoroughly with soap and wipe dry with a clean towel. Then pierce your finger with a lancet and gently press down on the pad until a drop of blood appears.
Next, you should put a drop of blood on the test strip, previously inserted into the meter and wait a few seconds until the blood sugar level appears on the screen of the device. If you follow all the above recommendations, then such an independent measurement of sugar in its accuracy will not be inferior to laboratory tests.
For reliable monitoring of blood sugar levels, it is enough to do a blood test no more than four times a day. At the same time, the results should be recorded in daily schedules, which will allow you to track glucose fluctuations on the basis of several days and understand what causes the increase in blood sugar levels.
The first measurement of glucose should be performed in the morning immediately after waking up. The following blood test should be done 2 hours after the first meal. The third dimension needs to be done after dinner, and the fourth in the evening before going to bed.
In healthy people, the rate of sugar in the blood from a finger, regardless of gender and age, usually remains in the range from 4.15 to 5.35 mmol / l. This indicator can affect not only disorders of the pancreas, but also unbalanced nutrition with a minimum amount of fresh vegetables and greens.
In a healthy person, the level of sugar on an empty stomach is usually 3.6 to 5.8 mmol / l. If it is within a few days it exceeds 7 mmol / l, then the person should immediately contact an endocrinologist to identify the causes of such a high glucose concentration. The most common cause of critical blood sugar levels in adults is type 2 diabetes.
When measuring blood sugar levels after a meal, it should be borne in mind that this indicator largely depends on the quantity and quality of food. So the consumption of foods rich in carbohydrates can cause a sharp jump in blood glucose even in healthy people. This is especially true for various sweets, as well as dishes from potatoes, rice and pasta.
Consumption of abundant and high-calorie foods, including various types of fast food, can lead to the same effect. Also, sugary drinks, such as fruit juices, all sorts of soda, and even tea with a few spoons of sugar, can also affect blood sugar levels.
In the analysis of blood immediately after a meal, the glucose level during normal carbohydrate metabolism should be in the range of 3.9 to 6.2 mmol / l.
Indicators from 8 to 11 mmol / l indicate the presence of prediabetes in humans, and all indicators over 11 clearly indicate the development of diabetes.
If a person adheres to the rules of healthy eating and leads an active lifestyle, but at the same time the level of sugar in his blood exceeds the permissible rate, then it probably indicates the development of type 1 diabetes. This form of diabetes is autoimmune and can therefore affect people with normal weight and healthy habits.
High blood sugar does not always indicate that a person has diabetes. There are other diseases, the development of which may be accompanied by an increase in plasma glucose concentration. So, you can highlight the main signs of diabetes are presented below:
- Extreme thirst, the patient can drink up to 5 liters of fluid per day;
- Abundant urine, the patient often has nocturnal enuresis;
- Increased fatigue, deterioration of performance;
- Strong hunger, the patient has a special craving for sweets;
- Drastic weight loss on the background of increased appetite;
- Tingling in the whole body, especially in the limbs;
- Pruritus, which is most pronounced in the hips and perineum;
- Impaired visual acuity;
- Deterioration in the healing of wounds and cuts;
- The appearance of pustules on the body;
- Frequent thrush in women;
- Deterioration of sexual function in men.
The presence of at least several of these signs should alert the person and become a weighty reason for being tested for diabetes.
In the video in this article, the doctor will tell you about fasting blood sugar.