With each decade, our diet is changing more and more, and far from the best: we eat more sugar and animal fats, less vegetables and cereals. The result of these changes is an epidemic of diabetes that has swept the whole world. Porridge in type 2 diabetes is a mandatory element of the diet, a source of hard-to-digest carbohydrates and fiber, essential vitamins and minerals for the health. Among the cereals there are "stars", that is, the most useful and least of all affecting glycemia, and outsiders, which cause the same jump of sugar as a piece of butter bun. Consider what criteria you need to choose cereals, which porridge is allowed without the fear of including in your diet.
Why cereals should be included in the menu of diabetics
Of the nutrients, only carbohydrates have a direct effect on glucose in diabetes. In the diet of a healthy person, they occupy more than 50% of the total calories. Patients with diabetes have to reduce the amount of carbohydrates, leaving only the most useful ones in their diet: cereals and vegetables. Carbohydrates cannot be completely excluded because they are the main source of energy.
Porridge with type 2 diabetes are good sources of vitamins B1-B9. The content of these nutrients in 100 g of unprepared cereals - up to 35% of the daily requirement. B vitamins in diabetes are consumed more actively than in healthy people. Especially great need in the case of decompensated diabetes. These vitamins reduce oxidative stress, allow you to maintain healthy skin, eyes, improve the condition of the mucous membranes. B3 and B5 are directly involved in metabolic processes, contribute to the normalization of cholesterol levels, stimulate the bowels. B6 is a lipotrope that prevents the frequent complication of diabetes - fatty hepatosis.
Diabetes and pressure surges will be a thing of the past.
- Sugar normalization -95%
- Elimination of vein thrombosis - 70%
- Elimination of palpitations -90%
- Excessive Blood Pressure - 92%
- Increased vigor during the day, improved sleep at night -97%
The mineral composition of cereals is no less rich. The most important minerals in cereals for type 2 diabetes are:
- Manganese is present in the composition of enzymes that provide carbohydrate metabolism, enhances the effect of insulin of its own, prevents negative changes in bone tissues and tendons. 100 g of buckwheat - 65% of the recommended daily consumption of manganese.
- Zinc is needed for the formation of insulin and other hormones. 100 g of oatmeal per third satisfies the daily need for zinc.
- Copper is an antioxidant, a stimulator of protein metabolism, improves the supply of oxygen to peripheral tissues. 100 g of barley - 42% of the amount of copper needed per day.
What cereals prefer
Carbohydrates of different structure affect glycemia differently. Carbohydrates banned in diabetes mellitus consist mainly of monosaccharides and glucose. They are quickly split and absorbed, dramatically increase the sugar. Usually they consist of products that have a sweet taste: honey, fruit juices, sweet pastries, and confectionery. Other hard-to-absorb carbohydrates act on sugar to a lesser extent. Their molecule has a more complex structure; it takes time to break down to monosaccharides. Representatives of such carbohydrates - bread, pasta, cereals.
The speed of assimilation of complex sugars is influenced not only by the composition, but also by the culinary processing of the product. Therefore, in the group of complex carbohydrates there are more and less useful. With type 2 diabetes, each additional cleaning, grinding, steam treatment adversely affects blood glucose. For example, whole grain or bran bread will cause a smaller sugar jump than a white loaf. If we talk about cereals, the best choice - large, minimally refined grains, not subjected to heat treatment.
The main characteristics of any cereal in diabetes are the carbohydrate content in it and the speed of their absorption, that is, the glycemic index.
Data on the most popular cereals are collected in the table:
|Groats||Kilocalories per 100 g of dry product||Carbohydrates in 100 g, g||Of them, indigestible carbohydrates (fiber), g||HE in 100 g||Gi|
|Long grain rice||365||80||2||6,5||60|
|Round grain rice||360||79||0||6,6||70|
The first is to pay attention to the GI cereals. The bigger it is, the faster and higher glucose will rise after a meal. The speed of digestion of porridge depends on the individual characteristics of digestion, therefore, blindly rely on the values of GI can not. For example, some type 2 diabetics buckwheat strongly raises sugar, others almost imperceptibly. To find out the effect of specific cereals on your glycemia personally, you can only measure sugar after a meal.
Approximately calculate how much should be in the diet cereals for type 2 diabetics, you can use the bread units. Recommended daily intake (includes not only cereals, but also other carbohydrates):
|Lifestyle||HE per day|
|Diabetic weight is normal||Weight loss is required|
|Sedentary, bed rest||15||10|
|Medium activity, periodic training||25||17|
|High activity, regular workouts||30||25|
Diet number 9, designed for diabetics, will help you to find out how much cereal is allowed for type 2 diabetes. It allows you to eat up to 50 g of cereals per day, provided that diabetes is well compensated. Preference is given to buckwheat and oatmeal.
What porridge can type 2 diabetes
The best choice is minimally processed cereals from buckwheat, barley, oats and legumes: peas and lentils. Corn porridge and various cereals from wheat are allowed with some restrictions. If, in case of diabetes mellitus, they are properly prepared and correctly combined with other products, ready meals will have a minimal effect on glucose. What cereals can not eat: white rice, couscous and semolina. With any method of cooking, they will lead to a significant increase in sugar.
The basic principles of cooking porridge for type 2 diabetes:
- Minimum heat treatment. Groats should not be boiled soft to a uniform consistency. Preferred are crumbly, slightly undercooked cereals. Some cereals (buckwheat, oatmeal, some wheat) can be eaten with diabetes. To do this, they need to pour boiling water and leave overnight.
- Porridge boiled on water. At the end of cooking, you can add milk with low fat content.
- Porridges with type 2 diabetes are not a sweet dish, but a side dish or part of a complex dish. They do not put sugar and fruit. As additives allowed nuts, desirable greens, vegetables. The best option - porridge with meat and lots of vegetables.
- For the prevention of atherosclerosis and angiopathy, porridge for diabetes is filled with vegetable and not animal oils.
Most of the nutrients are in the shell of oats. The stronger the oats are cleaned, crushed, steamed, the less useful it will be. Delicate oatmeal instant cooking, which you just need to pour boiling water, in fact, is no different from buns: it remains a minimum of useful substances. In the whole grain of oats, the content of vitamin B1 is 31% of the norm, in Hercules - 5%, in oatmeal that does not require cooking, even less. In addition, the better processed cereals, the higher the availability of sugars in it, therefore, with type 2 diabetes, the best option for oatmeal is flakes for long-term cooking. They are poured boiling water and left to swell for 12 hours. Proportions: for 1 part of flakes 3-4 hours of water. Oatmeal should not be consumed more than a couple of times a week, as it washes away the calcium from the body.
The last 50 years, buckwheat porridge is considered the most useful, in times of shortage, diabetics even received it with coupons. At one time, even buckwheat was recommended as a means to reduce sugar. Recent studies have put a scientific basis for these recommendations: chiroinozitol was found in buckwheat. It reduces insulin resistance and contributes to the accelerated removal of sugar from the vessels. Unfortunately, this substance in buckwheat is generously flavored with starch, so buckwheat porridge still increases glycemia. In addition, the hypoglycemic effect of chiroinositol shows far from every type 2 diabetic. Read more about buckwheat with diabetes
Barley and pearl barley
These cereals are barley products. Pearl barley - whole grains, barley - crushed. Porridges have the closest composition: a lot of vitamin B3 and B6, phosphorus, manganese, copper. Barley has the lowest GI among cereals, so it is widely used in the nutrition of patients with diabetes.
Barley porridge with diabetes - a full main dish. Glass barley pour cold water overnight. In the morning the water is drained, the cereal is washed. Cook porridge in 1.5 cups of water under the lid until it runs out of liquid, after which the pan is wrapped for at least 2 hours. Roasted onions, stews, fried mushrooms, and spices are added to pearl barley.
Barley grits are cooked faster: they are washed, poured with cold water, boiled under a lid for 20 minutes, then left to stand for another 20 minutes. Proportions: 1 part of cereal - 2.5 parts of water. In the ready crumbly barley porridge generously add steamed vegetables: cabbage, green peas, eggplant, green beans.
Wheat groats are available in several types. With diabetes, you can include in the menu only some of them:
- Poltava porridge is the least processed, part of wheat shells is preserved in it. For diabetic nutrition, the largest Poltava cereal No. 1 is better suited. It is prepared the same way as barley, used in second courses and soups.
- Artek is finely crushed wheat, it is prepared faster, but sugar also raises more actively. It is better to cook porridges for diabetes from Artek in a thermos: pour boiling water and leave to spin for several hours. The traditional recipe with sugar and butter is not for type 2 diabetics. A combination of wheat cereal with fresh vegetables, fish, and poultry will have a lesser effect on blood glucose.
- Bulgur cereal is processed even more, wheat for it is not only crushed, but also subjected to pre-cooking. Due to this, bulgur is cooked faster than regular wheat porridge. In diabetes, this cereal is used very sparingly, mostly cold as a component of vegetable salads. The traditional recipe: fresh tomatoes, parsley, cilantro, green onions, olive oil, boiled and cooled bulgur.
- Couscous is obtained from semolina. To cook couscous, it is enough to boil for 5 minutes with boiling water. And couscous, and semolina porridge with diabetes are strictly prohibited.
There is a minimum of rice in rice (2 times less than in buckwheat), almost no beneficial vegetable fats. The main nutritional value of white rice is fast-digesting carbohydrates. This croup in diabetes is contraindicated, as it inevitably leads to a sharp increase in sugar. Glycemic index of brown rice is not much less, so it can be included in the diet is limited. Read more about rice in diabetes
Data on the GI of millet porridge differ, but in most sources, the index is 40-50. Millet is rich in proteins (about 11%), vitamins B1, B3, B6 (100 g quarter of the consumption rate), magnesium, phosphorus, manganese. Because of the taste, this porridge is used quite rarely. With type 2 diabetes, millet is added instead of rice and white bread in minced meat products.
Pea and lentil
GI of peas and green lentils - 25. These products are rich in proteins (25% by weight), fiber (25-30%). Legumes are the best substitute for porridge with diabetes mellitus. They are used for first courses and for side dishes.
A simple recipe for pea porridge: soak a glass of peas for the night, cook on minimal heat until cooked completely. Separately, fry finely chopped onions in vegetable oil, fill them with porridge.
Up to 48% of flax seeds are fatty oils, the content of omega-3 flax is a record among plants. About 27% comes from fiber, 11% from soluble dietary fiber - mucus. GI of flax seeds - 35.
Linen porridge improves digestion, reduces appetite, reduces cravings for sweets, slows the rise of sugar after a meal, reduces cholesterol. Seeds for porridge is better to buy whole and grind independently. The ground seeds are poured with cold water (proportion of 2 parts of water to 1 part of seeds) and infused from 2 to 10 hours.