Currently, diabetics have developed many drugs that help reduce blood sugar, but they all have limited effectiveness. To stop the course of the disease and prevent the development of complications, drug therapy is mandatory supplemented with a diet.
As a rule, already at the first reception, the doctor explains that you can eat with diabetes mellitus, what kind of food and in what amount you need to include in the menu. First of all, attention is paid to the carbohydrate composition of products. Carbohydrate intake must be strictly taken into account regardless of the type of diabetes. In some cases, for the normalization of glycemia and improvement of well-being, the patient may require quite strict restrictions.
Diet for diabetics
Immediately after the detection of diabetes mellitus, the patient is picked up not only drugs, but also a diet with a restriction of carbohydrates, and sometimes with a reduced calorie content. According to research, diabetes rational nutrition is no less important than the timely reception of prescribed drugs. An individual diet is selected for each patient. It takes into account the severity and type of the disease, the weight and health status of the diabetic.
Diabetes and pressure surges will be a thing of the past
- Sugar normalization -95%
- Elimination of vein thrombosis - 70%
- Elimination of palpitations -90%
- Excessive Blood Pressure - 92%
- Increased vigor during the day, improved sleep at night -97%
What is in type 1 disease
In type 1 diabetics, the production of their own insulin is completely stopped, therefore carbohydrates supplied with food cease to penetrate into the tissues of the body and provide them with energy. Blood glucose increases rapidly. In order to normalize carbohydrate metabolism, with type 1 diabetes, substitution therapy must be prescribed: instead of the missing insulin, patients inject themselves with an artificial hormone. Before each meal, the carbohydrate content in it is calculated, and on the basis of these data the right amount of insulin is determined.
With type 1 disease, almost everything can be eaten by the sick; the diet is minimally reduced:
- The list of products is almost the same as with the usual healthy food, carbohydrates in the diet is allowed up to 55%.
- To improve the compensation of the disease, diabetics are recommended to limit the fastest carbohydrates - sweets, sugar, baking, potatoes.
- High fiber carbohydrates (greens, vegetables, cereals) are not limited.
- Particular attention is paid to the power schedule. You need to eat at regular intervals, you can not skip the next meal.
Diet for type 2
With type 2 disease, the production of insulin is gradually reduced, so diabetics can keep sugar normal for a long time without resorting to insulin injections. The basis of treatment are oral hypoglycemic agents and diet.
The nutritional requirements for type 2 diabetics are much stricter:
- Products containing easily digestible carbohydrates are completely excluded from the menu.
- It is advisable to eat a lot of plant foods with coarse fibers: vegetables, whole grains, greens.
- Most of the fat should be of plant origin, and fatty fish is also allowed. Animal fats are limited to 7% of total calories, trans fats are completely excluded.
- In the presence of excess weight is limited to the total caloric content of food. It is calculated so that the deficit per day was 500-1000 kcal. Fasting and drastic weight loss are undesirable; men need to eat at least 1500 a day, women - at least 1200 kcal. With type 2 diabetes, one of the goals for the first year of treatment is to lose about 7% of the weight.
- To improve the taste of food, you can use non-caloric sweeteners.
- Alcohol is either completely prohibited or limited to taking 15 g of alcohol per day for women, 30 g for men.
Rules of catering
In case of diabetes, endocrinologists recommend adhering to the following rules of nutrition:
|rules||What can you eat with diabetes|
|Full value||The diet should be physiological, that is, to provide sufficient for the body the amount of nutrients. If necessary, diabetes prescribed additional intake of vitamins in capsules.|
|Balance||Proteins should be at least 20% of daily calories, fats - up to 25% (with obesity up to 15%), carbohydrates - up to 55%.|
|Carbohydrate accounting||Diabetics receiving insulin preparations must take into account all eaten carbohydrates. For type 2 diabetics, such accounting is recommended but not required. For the calculation, you can use the system of bread units.|
|Avoiding fast carbs||Excluded from the menu are foods with an excess of simple sugars. Glycemic index tables are used to determine the list of undesirable foods.|
|Weight control||Excessive carbohydrate intake, high insulin blood levels in diabetes contribute to weight gain, so patients need to control the calorie content of products.|
|Lots of fiber||Dietary fiber can significantly slow down the flow of glucose into the bloodstream, improve digestion, reduce cholesterol. You can eat up to 40 g of fiber per day.|
|Fractionality||With diabetes, it is recommended to eat 5-6 times. As a rule, they organize 3 main meals and 2-3 snacks.|
For a long time to adhere to such severe restrictions is quite difficult, therefore, diabetes mellitus is advised to use the "method of promotion." For example, on weekends to eat a banned product (candy, cake), provided that the glucose level was normal all week.
The concept of bread units
A bread unit system has been created to facilitate carbohydrate accounting. 1 XE is conventionally equivalent to a standard piece of bread. For sugar and desserts, every 10 g of carbohydrate is taken as 1 XE. If the product contains fiber (vegetables, fruits, bread, cereals), 12 g of carbohydrates (approximately 10 g of pure carbohydrates and 2 g of fiber) are considered to be the bread unit.
To calculate how much XE is in a product, it is best to use the data from the package: divide the amount of carbohydrates per 100 g by 12 (10 for sweets), and then multiply by the total weight. For an approximate calculation, you can use ready lists XE.
Type 1 diabetics need the amount of XE to determine the dose of insulin. On average, 1 XE corresponds to 1-2 units of insulin. With type 2 disease, an approximate calculation of XE is needed to control carbohydrate intake. Per day allow from 10 XE (large weight, low mobility, decompensated diabetes) to 30 XE (weight and glucose are normal, regular exercise).
Different foods affect blood glucose differently. If the food contains a lot of simple sugars, glycemia in a short time reaches a high level. And vice versa: if the carbohydrates in the product are difficult to digest polysaccharides, the rise in blood glucose will be gradual, and with type 2 diabetes and lower. All products are assigned glycemic indices, which are calculated depending on the quality of the carbohydrates they contain. The lower the GI of the food, the less impact it will have on glycemia.
- Low - up to 35 units inclusive. These include all greens, most vegetables, meat, nuts, dairy products, barley and barley cereals, berries, citrus. Food from this list can be eaten by diabetics without restrictions, it is the basis for building the menu.
- Average - 40-50 pcs. This category includes most cereals, fruit juices, pasta, vegetables - boiled carrots. Diabetics can eat these products in limited quantities, in case of decompensation of diabetes, they will have to be temporarily excluded.
- High - from 55 units. These include sugar, honey, all the muffins, sweet cookies and other industrial products with sugar, rice, boiled beets, potatoes. Products from this list are allowed to eat in very small quantities and only with strict glycemic control.
What foods you can eat with diabetes
A diet prescribed for diabetes is aimed at limiting the flow of glucose into the vessels, improving the lipid profile of the blood, and reducing weight. Consider which products are most useful in your group, how to prepare them correctly and with what is best to combine.
Meat and fish
GI of this group - 0 units, it contains almost no carbohydrates and has no effect on glycemia. Fish and seafood is the only category of products that is practically unlimited in diabetes. All kinds of fish are allowed, including moderately fat. Only canned food in oil is undesirable; for hypertension, salted fish.
For meat products restrictions more. In diabetes, the risk of lipid metabolism disorders is high, so the main requirement for meat is a minimum of fat. It is better to eat chicken and turkey fillets, veal, rabbit.
Vegetables and fruits
With diabetes, vegetables become the basis for building a menu. The dishes should be a lot of fiber, so it is better to choose coarse vegetables. In order to preserve dietary fiber, it is better to eat them with SD, do not boil them and do not turn them into puree. Allowed any cabbage, including stewed, cucumbers, all kinds of onions, mushrooms, radishes and radishes, celery, peppers, zucchini, green beans, any greens, eggplant.
GI most popular vegetables:
|low||15||Cucumbers, onions, whole cabbage, mushrooms, celery top, all greens, zucchini.|
|20||Eggplant, raw carrots.|
|30||Tomatoes, green beans, raw turnips and beets.|
|35||Celery is an underground part.|
|average||40||Carrots after heat treatment|
|tall||65||Pumpkin, beets after heat treatment.|
|70||Boiled potatoes and baked whole.|
|85||Celery root and parsnip stewed.|
|95||Potatoes fried in oil.|
Background information on fruit GI (article> fruit and diabetes):
|25||Raspberry, grapefruit, strawberry|
Most flour products have a high GI, which is why diabetics are prohibited. Borodinsky and bran bread, baked goods from whole-grain flour without sugar are allowed to eat in small amounts with type 2 diabetes.
Natural dairy products contain no more than 7% carbohydrates, their GIs are not higher than 35, therefore the same requirements as for meat are imposed on them: the minimum amount of animal fats. In diabetes, fermented milk products do not limit fat content to 5%, but they try not to eat sour cream, butter, yoghurts and cottage cheese with the addition of canned fruit and sugar.
Cereals and legumes
Due to the high proportion of carbohydrates in cereals (50-70%), their consumption in diabetes mellitus has to be reduced. The recommended amount of dry cereals per day is not more than 50 g. Kashis are cooked in water or skimmed milk, trying to make them crumbly, not viscous. In the same meal, fresh vegetables and high-protein products are required.
GI cereals and legumes:
|30||Barley, beans, lentils.|
|60-75||Rice (depending on the variety and degree of processing).|
Severe thirst is a sign of decompensated diabetes. The main task in this case is to reduce glycemia with the help of sugar-lowering tablets, in severe cases, insulin is used. With decompensation, the risk of dehydration is high, so doctors recommend frequent and heavy drinking. In order not to aggravate the condition, drinks should not contain sugar. Drinking and mineral water is best.
If diabetes is under control, the choice of drinks is greater. You can treat yourself to fruit juices (GI juice without sugar - 40-45 units), rosehip infusion, a variety of teas and even store lemonades with sweetener instead of sugar.
Use of sugar substitutes
The complete elimination of fast carbohydrates is tolerated by diabetics quite hard. To keep the diet easier, you can use sweeteners and sweeteners to improve the taste of food. They are divided into natural and artificial. Of natural diabetes, you can use xylitol and sorbitol (up to 30 g, in the elderly - up to 20 g per day), stevia leaves and stevioside, erythritol. Fructose for diabetics is undesirable, because it contributes to obesity and, when taken regularly, affects blood glucose. Of artificial sweeteners, diabetes mellitus is widely used aspartame (up to 40 mg per kg of body weight).
Diabetics are contraindicated products containing a lot of simple carbohydrates, saturated fat and cholesterol:
- Sugar (both brown and refined), honey, fruit syrups.
- Any sweets of industrial production: cakes, chocolate, ice cream, muffin. They can be replaced by homemade pastries based on cottage cheese and eggs. Flour is used wholegrain or rye, sugar is replaced by sweeteners.
- Fried in oil and fat food.
- Potatoes as a side dish, regardless of how they are cooked. With compensated diabetes, some potatoes can be added to vegetable soups and stews.
- White rice is completely excluded. Brown rice is used only as a part of vegetable and meat dishes.
- Sausages and meat products contain a lot of hidden saturated fats, so with a high level of cholesterol, they are included in the banned list of products.
- Mayonnaise, margarine, lard, lard are also sources of harmful fat. Soft margarine and low cholesterol sauces (indicated on the package) can be eaten at the initial stage of diabetes, provided that blood glucose is normal.
- Dairy products with added sugar, flavors.
- Dairy products of high fat content: cheese with fat content of more than 30%, cottage cheese more than 5%, sour cream, butter.