Terms of blood sugar testing and decoding results

Basic information in the diagnosis of diabetes gives a conventional laboratory blood test for sugar. With its help, it is possible to detect shifts at the biochemical level several years before the onset of the disease and to eliminate them in time.

In addition to metabolic disorders, this study helps to identify endocrine pathologies, chronic kidney disease, pancreatitis. Low sugar signals for liver cirrhosis, intestinal diseases, eating disorders. Let's take a closer look at which of the sugar tests to choose, how to prepare for blood donation, and what health problems the research results can tell.

Why is it necessary to take a blood test for sugar

Information about the amount of glucose in our blood is very important, because it is sugar - and the source of energy for the tissues of the body, and ruthless destroyer of our vessels and nerves. It all depends on the glycemic load - the concentration of glucose in the blood.

Diabetes and pressure surges will be a thing of the past.

  • Sugar normalization -95%
  • Elimination of vein thrombosis - 70%
  • Elimination of palpitations -90%
  • Excessive Blood Pressure - 92%
  • Increased vigor during the day, improved sleep at night -97%

The main cause of high sugar levels is diabetes. According to statistics, mortality from its complications ranks sixth among all possible causes of death. Every year he takes the lives of one and a half million people - more than the accident on the roads.

Symptoms of diabetes prior to the onset of serious organ disorders are difficult to recognize. Its manifestations are uncertain: frequent urination, itching of the skin, fatigue. They are easy to miss. The easiest and most accurate way to detect diabetes is blood sugar testing. If you take them regularly, biochemical changes in the body can be recognized several years before the onset of diabetes and in time to prevent them.

Possible reasons for prescribing a sugar test:

  • assignment to the risk group of diabetes - with poor heredity, obesity, high blood pressure;
  • pregnancy;
  • identified atherosclerosis or ischemic heart disease;
  • temporary blurring or dropping of vision;
  • pancreatic diseases;
  • frequent skin inflammation, poor healing of injuries;
  • unstable mental state, anxiety attacks;
  • genital itching if the infection is not detected;
  • routine medical examination;
  • assessment of the level of compensation of already diagnosed diabetes.

Types of sugar tests

To detect diabetes and control it, several types of sugar tests are used:

  1. Blood glucose - a leading laboratory test for diagnosing diabetes. It is prescribed for complete examinations, to prepare for operations, with the appearance of symptoms similar to the manifestations of diabetes. If the blood sugar level determined as a result of the analysis significantly exceeds normal values, this is sufficient for a diagnosis.
  2. Rapid sugar test - carried out in the office of the therapist or at home with the help of portable devices - blood glucose meters. The readings have a significant error (up to 20% with inaccurate compliance with the instructions), so the rapid methods can only be considered as preliminary. Laboratory tests are assigned on their basis.
  3. Fructosamine assay - usually assigned to patients with diabetes, to check how the treatment works and to track the dynamics of reduction of sugars in the blood. The study calculates the concentration of fructosamine - glycated serum proteins, that is, those that react with glucose. The time of their life is from 1 to 3 weeks, the analysis shows how often and critical sugar increased during this time - in detail about fructosamine.
  4. Analysis of glycated hemoglobin - shows how the blood sugared the last 3-4 months. This is the lifetime of red blood cells, which contain hemoglobin. The higher the sugar level, the more glycated hemoglobin contains blood, and therefore diabetes is more pronounced. This analysis is optimal both for identifying single cases of glucose rise and for monitoring diabetes that already exists - in detail about GG.
  5. Glucose Tolerance Test - allows you to identify the state of prediabetes, the initial changes in the metabolism of sugars. It shows whether the body is able to process a significant amount of glucose that has entered the blood once. During the test, blood is taken several times. The first - on an empty stomach, the subsequent - after the glycemic load in the form of a glass of sweet water. The analysis takes more than 2 hours, and is carried out only in the laboratory, under the supervision of staff. Test result - sugar levels on an empty stomach and every 30 minutes after the load. See the article about the glucose tolerance test.
  6. Glucose tolerance test with C-peptide assay - A complicated version of the previous one. It is a blood sugar test with a load, during which, in addition to glucose concentration, the amount of C-peptide is calculated. This is part of the precursor of insulin, which, when it is formed, is separated. According to the level of C-peptide, the insulin produced can be judged with greater accuracy than by itself, since insulin can be retained by the liver and not enter the bloodstream. With the help of the analysis, you can find out how much insulin is produced by the pancreas, even when a patient with diabetes receives insulin from the outside in the form of injections - about C-peptide here.
  7. Glucose Tolerance Test during Pregnancy - appointed mandatory at the end of the 2 trimester. With its help, a type of diabetes that is characteristic only for pregnant women is revealed - gestational. The test is carried out with increased caution; to prevent hyperglycemia, blood sugar is previously determined by a rapid test.
See article about glucose tolerance test.

Often there is the question of how sugar is designated in the general blood test. The fact is that the general blood test does not contain any indicator sugar, as it relates to clinical hematological studies. The level of glucose is determined as a result of biochemical studies, so if you need to find out, it is necessary to warn the laboratory staff about this.

Preparation for analysis and blood donation

All sugar tests, with the exception of glycated hemoglobin, surrender strictly on an empty stomach. Period without food should be 8-14 hours. In order for the glucose analysis to show the real state of things, in the morning before the analysis you will have to do without breakfast, coffee and tea, cigarettes, chewing gum and even brushing your teeth. Medication is also desirable to postpone for a while after analysis. Only clean water is allowed. Preparation for the blood sugar test begins 2 days before blood donation.

It is necessary to exclude the influence on the sugar level of the following factors:

  1. You can not dramatically change the diet, you should not, as lean on fat and sweet, and go on a diet.
  2. Alcohol in any amount is prohibited 48 hours before blood donation.
  3. Physical therapy and massage, strengthened training on the eve of the analysis should be canceled, they can lead to an underestimation of blood sugar levels.
  4. Infectious diseases also distort the results, since the last cold, you should wait at least 2 weeks.
  5. Perhaps, on the advice of a doctor, you will have to interrupt the course of taking a number of drugs. These are usually salicylates, vitamins, hormones, including contraceptives.
  6. Stressful situations on the day of analysis x reason to postpone blood donation to another time.

It is better to come to the laboratory for 15 minutes before donating blood to rest and calm down. So the results will be more accurate.

Modern laboratories prefer to work with blood plasma. Blood for sugar from a vein gives more accurate results, as it is more pure in comparison with capillary. Blood from a finger is used only for rapid tests and, sometimes, to determine fasting sugar.

How often do I need to track blood sugar

Population categoryRecommended frequency of delivery
Persons under 40Once in 5 years
Persons over 40Once every 3 years
Diabetes risk groupOnce a year
Pregnant womenAt least 1 time at 24-28 week
Onset of diabetes symptomsImmediately
Previously identified glucose tolerance or insulin resistanceSemiannually
Diabetes patientsRapid tests - daily, glycated hemoglobin - once a quarter

Decoding blood sugar tests

If you take a responsible approach to the preparation and correctly pass a laboratory blood test for sugar, it is possible to identify deviations in glucose metabolism with a high degree of confidence. However, the diagnosis is made only after re-detection of deviations in the results.

Fasting glucose, referred to as Glucose or GlucoseThe rate for men and women is adult.From 4.1 to 5.9
Norma childrenFrom 3.3 to 5.6
Norm over 60 years old4.6 to 6.4
Glucose 2 hours after glycemic loadNormLess than 7.8
Impaired glucose toleranceFrom 7.8 to 11.1
Suspected diabetesMore than 11.1
Diabetes with sufficient compensation286-320
Diabetes, no compensationMore than 370
Glycosylated hemoglobinNormLess than 6
Risk groupFrom 6 to 6.5
DiabetesMore than 6.5

Deviations from the norm: what could be the reasons

Sugar, which is much higher than the norm, indicates diabetes mellitus or one of the diseases:

  • endocrine system pathologies;
  • disruption of the pancreas;
  • sluggish liver or kidney disease;
  • hemorrhagic stroke;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • autoimmune diseases.

Perhaps an increase in glycemic indicators under the influence of stress, smoking before donating blood, taking caffeine or hormones. A slight excess of the norm indicates the initial problems in metabolism, most of which are reversible and are successfully treated. In this case, it is necessary to consult an endocrinologist and additional research.

Hypoglycemia, low sugar, is characteristic of disorders in the production of hormones by the pituitary gland, occurs in hypothyroidism, severe liver diseases, tumors of the pancreas and stomach. Falsely understated test results show after exercise, lack of nutrition, at elevated body temperature.

The cost of such an analysis

Blood sugar is inexpensive, in commercial laboratories it will cost 200 rubles, and in the office of the therapist or endocrinologist you can write it out for free. Determining the quality of diabetes treatment also does not require a lot of money - the analysis of fructosamine costs about 250 rubles.

Clarifying the level of glycated hemoglobin and the glucose tolerance test will cost between 500 and 650 rubles. The concentration of C-peptide can be found for an additional 700 rubles. For the taking of blood from a vein in most cases will have to pay from 100 to 150 rubles.

How much is a blood test done:

  • in clinics - about 1 week, as they send blood to other laboratories;
  • in a commercial laboratory - 1 business day; if an urgency is paid, it takes 2 hours to deliver the results to an electronic mailbox.

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